We believe that a substantial number of the autistic children have a disorder caused by genetically determined peptidase/proteinase defects that differs from one family to the next. This causes peptide increases such as casomorphin 1-8 (bovine opioid peptide) and with different chain length in different families. We also find gliadinomorphin and several serotonin uptake stimulating peptides as well as an increased frequency of IgA antibody increases to certain food proteins in about 1/4 of the children.
We therefore by and large treat with a strict diet free of gluten and milk proteins with reasonably good results( 1-3). Because numerous immuno-modulating peptides are also formed from caseins as well as peptidase inhibitors (4 and review 5,6), I believe that the immune data are secondary to the formation and uptake of many of these peptides.
Furthermore, peptides are often cut out from precursor proteins and induce antibody formation. The immune system has lots of opioid receptors on the immune competent cells.
We run a frozen 10 ml urine sample to look for peptides. An aliquot of a 24 h urine is best, however, 10 ml morning urine is easier to collect and statistically not different. Properly stoppered (leak proof), and remember that urine expands on freezing. We need to know the patients name, drug intake and the name and address of the physician to whom we can send the results. (Note: We must work with the medical establishment).
If packed in one little box of styrofoam inside a bit larger one and sent as express mail in the beginning of the week , that should be ok. 1-2 mg of thymol added to a complete 24 h urine is a reasonable bacteriostatic and prevents autodegradation.
We would also like to have IgA and IgG done (or the results) against gliadin, gluten, casein, lactoglobulin and lactalbumin. The immunoassays on IgA and IgG antibodies against food proteins (lactalbumin, lactoglobulin, casein, gluten and gliadin) must be done locally, because transport of sera across borders is difficult due to the AIDS scare.
Note: If the child is on diet or on sufficient neuroleptics we can be fooled by the urine data , because the peptide level may then be normal. Neuroleptics induce peptidases and diet of course reduces the peptide load. The child probably has to be on an ordinary diet for 8 weeks before we can run a peptide pattern screening.
Note: diet must be strict and long term. Short term on and off is quite cruel because of abstinence problems being switched on and off. (Like on and off of heroin). Going off diet should be carefully planned by small increments to avoid acute problems. Diet is not a miracle but starts a process of steady improvement over time. This is so because man being a learning organism must learn and this is a process that takes time.
Run control after 1 year.
The only way to keep the diet is to read on all food declarations and probably make gluten free bread yourself. Can be bought too. 1 molecule of glutenin contains 16 opioids , so the diet must be strict.
Note: Vitamin supplements a should be discontinued some days in advance of collecting the urine. We also need to know what drugs or diet the patient is on. On diet, cod liver oil (Vit A,D,E and usnaturated fatty acids), 500mg calcium daily, and multivitamins with trace minerals and magnesium is recommended.
- Reichelt Kl et al (1991)Brain Dysfunction 4: 308-319.
- Knivsberg A-M et al (1995) Scand J Educat. Res. 39: 223- 236.
- Reichelt Kl et al (1997) Dev Brain Dysfunct 10: 44-55.
- Migliore-Samour D and Jollet P (1988) Experientia 44: 88-93.
- Reichelt Kl et al (1996) Adv Neruo-psychopharmacol & Biol Psychiat 20:
- Cade R et al (2000) Nutritional Neuroscience 3: 57-72.
Late onset autism has a strong association with regional nodular lyphadenitis in the lower jejeunum and colitis
- Wakefield AJ et al (2000) Am J gastroenterology.
This is where we find the highest peptide levels. We are a government lab with no funding for foreign tests. The cost without any profit at all is about US $25 a sample. This can be transferred to bank account Den Norske bank account no 7030.20.01071, and labeled support for research (it is a research account).
If few samples the money can be put in a plastic envelope with the samples. Whatever is convenient.
Note: If anyone has problems with the cost we run these for free of course, but when there is openings in the series.
Note: To prevent us from paying import tax it is important to attach a proforma invoice to the parcel where is written that this a sample for scientific investigation, that it is Non toxic; Not infectious and of No commercial value.
Please note: results are taking 3 months at this time.
All the best, KLR
Pediatric Research Institute
N-0027 Oslo, Norway
Tel: +47 23 07 29 85
Fax: +47 23 07 27 80